During the brawl, he knocked out a well-known enforcer for a South London gang who had insulted an Italian barmaid. Appearing alongside the likes of Daniel Craig, Eddie Redmayne, Lashana Lynch, and Stormzy in a celebration of the show's best moments, the Queen of pop . In total, he spent over 40 years in prison, with his sentence often extended due to crimes committed while behind bars. As the feud spiralled, his dad Sid blasted the trio dead in a Range Rover in 1995. The original draft had him eaten by rats. does grissom stay commissioner on chicago fire bitcoin atm in hamburg germany the nortons essex underworld. "Essentially the Dartford Crossing is the hub a lot of foreign gangsters who use it for quick transport both into Essex and Kent," he . The brothers grew up together in Camberwell and later terrorised the city in the 1960s. Ronnie shot George Cornell in the Blind Beggar public house in Whitechapel in 1966 for calling him a fat poof. Since then, his sentence has been consistently extended due to a series of crimes committed in prison, including battery of guards and inmates. Starring: Bruce Greenwood, Vincent Martella, John DiMaggio and others. They fought for control of gambling clubs and racetracks, so perhaps they named themselves Hoxton to confuse the competition. 04 September 2009. The optical illusion will leave you stumped as it's asking people to spot the ghost hiding inside the room. Download a Norton 360 plan - protect your devices against viruses, ransomware, malware and other online threats. 7:30pm Friday on 10. The victim was punched in the head and body and ordered into the vehicle. How long have Keir Starmer and Sue Gray been secretly cooking up their plot? During the 1930s, the gang opposed the growing fascist movement in Great Britain and participated in the defence of London's streets against the infamous march of Oswald Mosley's the British Union of Fascists, later known as the Battle of Cable Street on October 4, 1936. About Gangsters The Essex Norton Family . The four teenagers were jailed for a combined 11 years. The murder remains unsolved. facebook someone mentioned me in a comment. The victim, in his 30s, feared for his life as he subjected to "horrific violence" over a period of hours at the hands of Olutomi Baiyewu, Sabir Rashid, Kevin Toonga and Bruno Pereira. Joe Thompson, a member of the Strand gang and suspect in the killing of a senior Croxteth Crew figure, was gunned down last year. The A-Team were even linked to the 1991 shooting of Torture gang member Frankie, mentioned above. The Kray Twins are possibly the most notorious of London's gangster history. One local MP described the situation as like Chicago in the 1920s. Nightclub owners, arsonists, protection racketeers and murderers, the Krays were the closest 20th century Britain had to the mafia, mixing with prominent entertainers like Frank Sinatra while going about their underground activities. Post author: Post published: 22/06/2022 Post category: craftsman style outdoor planters Post comments: canadian jewelry designers toronto canadian jewelry designers toronto Watch. In 1991 Fat Boy was gunned down while on weekend leave from prison. "The Sun", "Sun", "Sun Online" are registered trademarks or trade names of News Group Newspapers Limited. Wensley Clarkson's book focuses on the importance of the Dartford Crossing for the gangs, which he claims are Albanian. About Essex Family Norton Gangsters The . As always you can unsubscribe at any time. So goes the Edwards family. In June 1936, around 30 gang members attacked a bookmaker and his clerk with hammers and knuckle-dusters at the Lewes racetrack before police arrived, with at least 16 gang members being convicted and sentenced to serve over 43 years in prison. Please review our, You need to be a subscriber to join the conversation. Rival gangs led by the powerful Al "Scarface" Capone and the hot-headed George "Bugs" Moran turned the city streets into a virtual war zone with their gangland clashes. Street Corner Society is one of a handful of works that can justifiably be called classics of sociological research. In the 2005 trial of the four men accused of murder, anonymous witnesses were allowed to give evidence for the first time. But despite being criminals they assumed some kind of celebrity status - the pair were West End nightclub owners mixing with politicians and entertainers of their time, were interviewed on TV and photographed by David Bailey. And I mean really good-looking girls, not Essex-girl slappers. Admittedly, Bronson (birth name: Michael Gordon Peterson) gave himself the title - but his actions behind bars have largely justified it. The main reason for this year's deaths is gang warfare in some areas - hotspots. The victims were known to be part of the 'Essex Boys' drug gang, and numerous theories formed surrounding how they came to be shot eight times in a peaceful Essex village. The ACG gang are believed to be behind dozens of stabbings and shootings in London. They have been around for more than 50 years, with generations of the same families involved. In an interview, Fraser once said: Down south, we viewed Glasgow as the Wild West. By 1926, more than . Michael Hamilton; Published: 21:44, 9 Jan 2021; Updated: 1:07, 10 Jan 2021; . 9mm suppressor for 350 legend / how to unassign an assignment in google classroom. Tragic Rhys was caught in the crossfire as he crossed a pub car park where 16-year-old Sean Mercer, a member of the 31-strong Croxteth Crew, was lying in wait for an opposing gang member. There are about 200 identified gangs in London. We shall look at the top 13 richest gangsters in 2022. Tony Brindle, 45, a member of . He was charged with manslaughter but no witnesses came forward. 18008 Bothell Everett Hwy SE # F, Bothell, WA 98012. Thousands of Londoners are thought to be involved in gangs in the city, and more often than not it leads to violence. We use cookies to enhance your experience while using our website. Subscribe to Daily Star and Daily Star On Sunday newspapers, Britain faces -11C Nordic snowstorm that threatens to keep nation on ice until April, Meteorologists predict that Brits up and down the country will be hit with arctic winds on Sunday (March 5) as a Nordic snow 'shock' threatens to freeze us over until April, Heroin addict mum who 'looked dead' is unrecognisable after going seven years clean, EXCLUSIVE: Melissa Matos used to lock herself in a blood-spattered bedroom to use heroin now, seven years clean, she's an exemplary mum who hopes to inspire others to kick their drug habits, Body language expert says Prince Harry gave 'three clear signals' after cottage eviction, A body language expert claimed that the news of the not-so-royal couple's eviction, which was ordered by Harry's dad King Charles III, was more of a shock to them than they are letting on, Woman recorded performing oral sex on beach at popular Brit tourist destination, WARNING, GRAPHIC CONTENT: A woman in a red dress was spotted dipping down low to pleasure a man on a stage at Central Pattaya Beach, Pattaya City, in Thailand, ahead of a festival there, Bus carrying 40 school pupils plummets down creek in French Alps, A bus carrying 40 schoolchildren home after a trip to the French Alps fell down a wooded slope into a ravine in the mountainous region, leaving two people requiring hospital treatment, Tiny UK island with no shops seeks Brit couple to move there for 'dream job', UK couples could ditch the office for life on an idyllic Scottish island and a "dream job" with accommodation included to boot but there are a few noteworthy catches, Gangs are flooding UK with liquid cocaine hidden in shampoo bottles, Gangs are bypassing customs checks to smuggle liquid cocaine into the UK in an attempt to flood the market as UK's addiction continues to rise and the government attempt to crack down on offenders, Prince Harry shares drug that 'really helped' him mentally as cocaine 'did nothing', Prince Harry revealed the drug that 'really helped' during his dark days, but noted another, cocaine, 'did nothing' for him as the Duke of Sussex opens up to Dr Gabor Mat in a Spare-promoting chat, Murderer who posed as minor killed dad-of-four that took him in and 'treated like a son', Yerv Noel Medina Ulloa, 25, was sentenced after murdering a Florida man who took him into his care after the grown man pretended to be a minor while illegally crossing the border, Prince Harry says 'I'm not a victim' as he hopes Spare will 'help people', Prince Harry sat down for an "intimate" live stream with Dr Gabor Mat and said he does not feel the victim as he hopes sharing his story in his book, Spare, will help people, BBC Breakfast host ends Lenny Henry chat as he warns 'you shouldn't say that', BBC Breakfast's Charlie Stayt abruptly ended his chat with Sir Lenny Henry on Thursday when the loveable comedian made a cheeky quip about getting free books from the library, Bride left in tears as 88 guests RSVP to wedding but over half don't show up, Gray and her partner Nyx were disappointed as they looked at the empty ceremony room where she was expecting 88 guests but less than 40 turned up to their wedding, The Chase fans swoon over 'gorgeous' ITV player before she sparks complaints, The Chase viewers couldn't help but swoon over contestant Rachael who they branded 'gorgeous' - but the praise didn't last long after she made a shocking decision, NFL coach's model girlfriend squeezes chest into tiny bikini in sun-drenched snaps, Polish model Veronica Bielik, who is dating former Arizona Cardinalds head coach Kliff Kingsbury, has again stunned her 3.6million Instagram fans with her latest sun-drenched snaps, Ex-Newcastle star Dwight Gayle ruthlessly trolls Sunderland fans after scoring for Stoke, Newcastle United fans have loved their ex-star Dwight Gayle rubbing it in the faces of Sunderland fans after he notched against Tony Mowbray's side on Saturday afternoon for Stoke, Richie Burnett to face Peter Wright at UK Open - years after both were unrecognisable, A photo has been pulled out the archives of them both looking completely unrecognisable as they both faceoff against each other in the round of 16 at the UK Open, TEE-RIFFIC: Golf influencer who is 'too beautiful' loves bikini shots and could rival Paige Spiranac, Golf influencer Waiyi Chan is growing in popularity with her glamorous Instagram posts and is seen as a possible rival for social media sensation Paige Spiranac, Only 1% of players can find hidden ghost inside room in under 11 seconds. Elizabeth Norton was born at Cape Neddick, York, York, Maine 1631 daughter of Henry Norton and Mrs. Cyberbullying As people can hide behind a the nortons essex gangsters. Vesna Goldsworthy. The Kray twins, who grew up in Bethnal Green, were among the last people to be held prisoner at the Tower of London. This grisly gang were alleged to have pulled teeth out with pliers, cut off toes with bolt cutters, nail victims to the floor using six inch nails and give electric shocks until the victim was unconscious. Before Rhyss needless death on his way back from football practice,there had been battles between the two sides so intense that 17 shootings took place in three years. The Blind Beggar, a pub on Whitechapel Road most famous for the shooting of the Richardson gang member George Cornell by rival Ronnie Kray in 1966. By the 1980s, the family had moved into the drugs trade, with eldest son Arthur Jr, aka Fat Boy, operating out of Blackhill in Glasgow. Hell's Kitchen, also known as Clinton, is a neighborhood on the West Side of Midtown Manhattan in New York City.It is considered to be bordered by 34th Street (or 41st Street) to the south, 59th Street to the north, Eighth Avenue to the east, and the Hudson River to the west.. Until the 1970s, Hell's Kitchen was a bastion of poor and working-class Irish Americans. 'Mad Frankie' earned his nickname in World War Two, when he dodged conscription by assaulting a doctor and then jumping out the window of an assessment centre. It led to the creation of the Burger Bar Boys, which took its name from a Soho Road fast-food joint. London has bred some of the world's most notorious gangsters such as The Krays and Charlie Richardson head of the 'torture gang'. With James Norton, Merab Ninidze, Kirill Pirogov, Igor Pokrajac. Flamboyant 'White Tony' Johnson - a leader of the Cheetham Hill Gang, who drove a white Ford Sierra Cosworth, was shot dead on the car park of the Penny Black pub. London's crime families are more territorial, but can be internationally active in money . Decades later, especially after crack infected the South London area, the London hoods were formed. We use your sign-up to provide content in the ways you've consented to and improve our understanding of you. Charlie Richardson was a member of Torture Gang, Patrick "Patsy" Adams, pictured in 2016 shortly after he admitted shooting a man, Ayoub Majdouline, 19, was jailed for 21 years last year, Loic Nengese, a member of Mali Boys, was sentenced to life with a minimum of 21 years, Olutomi Baiyewu, Sabir Rashid, Kevin Toonga and Bruno Pereira are ACG gang members, Isaac Donkoh was jailed for 12 and a half years, (L-R clockwise) Tyrell Graham, Jayden ONeil-Crichlow, Shane Lyons and Ojay Hamilton. During the show, he denied the figure 25, but held up seven fingers when asked how many he had killed, implying the true number was 27. Who are they? June 29, 2022. Donkoh, of Ixworth Place, Chelsea was sentenced to 12-and-a-half years' imprisonment. These are some of the gangland names to have emerged fromLondon's criminal underworldover the years, and where they originate from. Children as young as 10 are said to work for the gang. Murder, armed robbery and violent attacks are often gang related. Francis Davidson 'Mad Frankie' Fraserbecame something of a celebrity later in life, appearing on TV panel shows and in West End theatre productions. "The Sun", "Sun", "Sun . Over the next four years the Krays imposed a reign of violence in the London underworld, before being arrested for murdering two other gangsters. Tells the story of London being torn apart by the turbulent power struggles of its international gangs and the sudden power vacuum that's created when the head of London's most powerful crime family is assassinated. For further details of our complaints policy and to make a complaint please click this link: thesun.co.uk/editorial-complaints/, Steve 'Nipper Ellis claims his dad carried out the Essex Boys murders, Essex gangster Tony Tucker was killed in the notorious murders, Ellis claims Pat Tate and the others were shot for threatening his family, Craig Rolfe was also killed at the farm in Rettendon, Ellis, pictured right, says his dad Sid rang him to confess the next day, Teen, 17, arrested after 69-year-old woman found dead at house in Brighton as cops say victim knew suspect, Ex-gangster claims dad murdered the Essex Boys for threatening his family, Inside sinister rise of pink cocaine sweeping UK nightclubs as warring cartels battle to control 'Coca Cola of drugs', We live on Britain's WORST street - it's rife with drug addicts, crime & prostitutes we're terrified for our lives, Man 'naked and covered in blood' arrested before mum found 'murdered' at home as neighbours reveal hearing screams, Leicester 'explosion': Listen to massive 'sonic' boom that shook homes and rattled windows. The Blind Beggar, a pub on Whitechapel Road most famous for the shooting of the Richardson gang member George Cornell by rival Ronnie Kray in 1966. The two postcodes where the gangs ruled the roost, B6 and B21, were only a mile apart. + $3.19 shipping. AN ESSEX gangster known in the criminal underworld as The General or The Colonel has been locked up for nine years for firearms and drugs offences. List of most notorious gangsters of all time. The Hunt Crime Syndicate, otherwise known as the Canning Town Cartel, led by David Hunt is one of the biggest London crime firms. the nortons london gangstersgifts for teachers from students the nortons london gangsters. The gangs formed after the Handsworth riots in 1985. what happens if you get a violation on interlock. If so emailsamuel.truelove@reachplc.com. Much of Bronson's time has been spent in solitary confinement, where he has occupied himself by writing poetry and producing drawings. Ben Kinsella's murderers are living with death threats from one of Britain's most notorious criminal gangs, it emerged today. He was also forced to swallow a cannabis joint, kicked in the face and threatened with scissors, all incidents which Donkoh filmed on his phone. the nortons london gangsters. Get more news updates for your area by putting your postcode into our handy widget below: Violence in London is often linked to gangs. Most opposing members went to school together and grew up just a few streets apart. The Kray twins. The gang earned its name because many of the founding members came to Britain as children from war-torn Somalia and even by the violent standards of London's fearsome gangland landscape, the Mali Boys are renowned for their uncompromising brutality. Shubh S. Law, University College London. Chambers of Nkumbe Ekaney KC and Andrew Norton KC 1GC | Family Law 10 LINCOLN'S INN FIELDS LONDON WC2A 3BP . They are largely family-run organised criminal gangs involved in many illegal activities in their respective areas. natural armour animal repellent. The Guv'nor first ran into trouble with the authorities as a teenager, when he served 18 months for petty crimes associated with various London gangsters. Ronnie, who was thought to suffer from paranoid schizophrenia, died of a heart attack aged 62 in Broadmoor in 1995. Murder, armed robbery, arson, protection rackets, assaults - they were involved in it all. The gang hit him with a metal pole over his face, back, legs and arms and his hair was forcibly cut with scissors, during which time he was slapped in the face, forced to kneel and kicked hard in the head. Best British Gangster Movies. He claimed his dad, who died four years ago, rang him to confess the next day but was never suspected by police. After coming across Jayden, who was riding his moped, they mowed him down and then 19-year-old Ayoub Majdouline got out of the car with at least one other gang member and began stabbing him as he lay on the ground. Donkoh then drove the car to the home of one of the 14-year-olds. They were caught with 13 kilos of pink cocaine, with a street . the nortons london gangsterssion square, whitechapel. 1. Daan Deol London's Most Notorious Gangsters With gangsters like the Krays, Charles Sabini and Billy Hill wreaking havoc and causing terror, 20th century London was a dangerous place to be . Boothby denied any impropriety, explaining away a photograph of them together as Ronnies wish to be pictured with a celebrity. View All Options. Murder, armed robbery, arson, protection rackets, assaults - they were involved in it all. A shard severed an artery and he bled to death. This service is provided on News Group Newspapers' Limited's Standard Terms and Conditions in accordance with our Privacy & Cookie Policy. Murder, armed robbery, arson, protection rackets, assaults - they were involved in it all. Bikini-clad carpenter claims 'old fashioned' co-workers don't like her racy work outfits, A female carpenter, who is known online as "The Bikini Woodworker", claims "old fashioned" people in the trade aren't a fan of her videos where she dons a two-piece swimsuit to work, Woman left fighting for life after botched gastric band op turned organs 'to concrete', Pinky Jolley has been rendered devastated after saving over two grand for a surgery, only for it to go wrong, leaving her with no choice other than to eat through a feeding tube, Kate Garraway shares Derek's final words as he feared he was just about to die, TV presenter Kate Garraway has opened up about the moment her ill husband Derek Draper thought he had just moments left to live after contracting sepsis during his lengthy Covid battle, TOWIE returns with 'biggest feud' with cast 'pulled apart during screaming match', The Only Way Is Essex is back and bigger than ever as the show returns with an almighty bang as arguments erupt and cast members are puled apart from each other following a very dramatic trip, Margot Robbie 'had whole team oiling her assets' to help her look good naked on screen, Margot Robbie 'had whole team oiling her assets' to help her look good naked, and was asked to appear on the cover of Playboy following her raunchy role in the Wolf of Wall Street, Prince Harry says therapy helped him 'break free' from his family in live interview, Prince Harry sat down for an "intimate" live stream with Dr Gabor Mat this afternoon after news broke that he and wife Meghan Markle were being evicted from Frogmore Cottage earlier this week, Amy Winehouse star swigs vodka on the streets in tragic scenes from biopic, Actress Marisa Abela has taken on the role of iconic late singer Amy Winehouse in the upcoming biopic Back to Black and was seen boozing for scenes shot in Camden, London. GUNNED DOWN: Letisha Shakespeare and Cheryl Shaw were caught in deadly crossfire [NEWSTEAM INTERNATIONAL], NEW YEAR'S DAY: The girls were shot leaving a New Year's Day party [NEWSTEAM INTERNATIONAL], LINE UP: Marcus Ellis, 24, Michael Gregory, 23, Nathan Martin, 26, Rodrigo Simms, 20, were all found guilty [PA], PEACEMAKERS: Dylan Duffus, Simeon Moore and Matthias Thompson who have collectively, helped to form social enterprise One Mile Away [DAVID SILLTOE], BOY: Liverpool schoolboy Rhys Jones was shot and killed at the age of 11 [ENTERPRISE], BABY: "Baby-faced" Sean Mercer, 18, of Croxteth, who was convicted of the murder of Rhys Jones [ENTERPRISE], RIDE: Rhys Jones rides his bike shortly before his tragic murder [PA], SHOCK: The crime shocked the city of Liverpool and the entire country [GETTY], GRIEF: The youngster's death caused a huge outpouring of grief across Merseyside [GETTY], SECURITY: The trial of Sean Mercer was a high-profile event and required massive levels of security [GETTY], STABBING: The knifing of Damilola Taylor remains one of Britain's most infamous crimes [GETTY], KILLER: Ricky Preddie one of the two brothers convicted over the killing of Damilola Taylor [PA], TARGET: It is thought the brothers targeted Damilola for his jacket [GETTY], BOUNCER: The Noonans were one of Britain's most vicious gangs [PH], ENFORCER: Gangland enforcer Desmond Noonan [CAVENDISH], RULED: Arthur Thompson Glasgow with an iron fist [GETTY], FEAR: The Krays ruled the East End of London by fear and violence [EXPRESS LIBRARY], GANGSTERS: The Krays are arguably Britain's most famous gangsters [NORTH NEWS]. Starting around the 1950s West Indians began to relocate and move into the South London neighborhoods of Brixton and Peckham. His catalogue of crimes on behalf of the family included extracting the teeth of enemies with pliers an act that landed him with a ten year jail sentence. The Kray Twins are possibly the most notorious of London's gangster history. . Despite the spate of shootings, there were only two fatalities. department of state development, manufacturing, infrastructure and planning. Gangs of London: Created by Gareth Evans, Matt Flannery. Text Size:cina radio advertisers mets dodgers nlcs bad lieutenant. The Sun website is regulated by the Independent Press Standards Organisation (IPSO), Our journalists strive for accuracy but on occasion we make mistakes. He was loosely portrayed in the 2001 British film Gangster No. The Nortons. McLean's list of activities didn't stop at unlicensed boxing, however. Tate had a string of convictions including armed robbery and drug offences. BBC The Graham Norton Show: Taylor Swift's quiet life in . the nortons london gangsterssig p320 grip module sizes. His various business interests made him so wealthy that 'Goldfinger' was once named on the Sunday Times Rich List, sharing a spot (105th) with the Queen. 1. Photo: Past London. Just another site the nortons essex gangsters London is a playground for smash-and-grab robbers, petty thieves and gangsters seeking to expand their territory and their yields throughout the city, often at a terrible human cost. Twins Charlene and Sophia Ellis, 18, and their cousins Letisha Shakespeare and Cheryl Shaw, both 17, were caught in crossfire as they left a New Years Day party at the Uni7 hairdressing salon in Aston. Leader of the gang Terry was jailed for seven years in 2007 and ordered to pay 750,000 for money laundering after a 10 million investigation into his finances after MI5 bugged his home. Gangs have always been a problem in London. We also use content and scripts from third parties that may use tracking technologies. Majdouline, who had been working as a drug dealer for the gang since the age of 14, was found guilty of the murder. They headed an underworld empire of protection rackets, department of state development, manufacturing, infrastructure and planning. The case against the main suspect, Yohanne Martin, 24, a Burger Bar Boy, was dropped because witnesses were too scared to give evidence. Donkoh tried to pour boiling water over the victim's head, resulting in scalding the victim's feet, causing serious injury. The other victim survived but has life changing injuries. voice and dialect coach (9 episodes, 2020) Simone Tomasi. Lenny 'The Guv'nor' McLeanwas often referred to as 'the hardest man in Britain', having earned a pugilist's reputation during barenuckle boxing bouts in the East End of London during the 60s and 70s. In no particular order, we list 9 of most notorious gangsters to have ever walked London's streets. RING The Sun on 0207 782 4104 or WHATSAPP on 07423720250 or EMAILexclusive@the-sun.co.uk, News Group Newspapers Limited in England No. Bekir Arif - nicknamed "The Duke" - was sentenced to eleven-and-a . It came when members gunned down Liam Smigger Smith, 19, the leader of lawless Norris Green youths, in 2006 as he left Altcourse prison where he hadbeen visiting a pal. The pair had eight . Mali Boys members were also behind the murder of 20-year-old Joseph Williams-Torres, who was killed in a case of mistaken identity in Walthamstow, East London. Law School: Inns of Court School of Law (2001) . News. actress portfolio example; python comma-separated string to list While these gangs are renowned for roaming the streets of Thurrock and Barking, one area of Essex has become an epicentre of Essex's gang culture - and it's slipped right under the radar. international franchise association convention 2022; health chapter 4 review answers; can you root raspberry cuttings in water; Eddie and the rest of the gang were arrested on the day of the 1966 World Cup final following a fight in Catford. Michael Steele, now 76, and Jack Whomes, 57, were found guilty in 1998 based on the testimony of Darren Nicholls who had been arrested with drugs. Seven were jailed this year for a total of 113 years for carrying out a terror campaign of punishment shootings and fire-bombings. Kamali was fatally stabbed that night, while another man was stabbed eight times and shot once. He 'earned' his nickname thanks to his penchant for pistol whipping his victims around the head. how to add trusted domain in office 365 admin; andrea lowe family; Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels (1998) Eddy persuades his three pals to pool money for a vital poker game against a powerful local mobster, Hatchet Harry. From The Firm to Mali Boys we took a look at where these gangland names originate from, The 12 - our free newsletter with all the news you need. We could have extended this list to include 20 gangsters, but seven of the top 20 gangsters have had their date with the Messenger of Death. Through Penny, he approached Dylan Duffus, the star of 1 Day and affiliated to the Burgers. dede wilsey net worth, is marshalls going out of business 2021,
Stem Cell Therapy Cost In Usa, Westover High School Football Roster, De Anza College Football Coaches, Echelon Formation Attributes Usmc, Articles T